Not long ago, the International Renewable Energy Agency (Irena) released a report saying that “in the past decade, the installation cost of photovoltaic power of public utilities has decreased by 79%, and the cost of global photovoltaic power generation has decreased by 82%”, “the generation cost of 40% new photovoltaic units in 2019 is lower than that of thermal power units constructed in the same period”. Compared with hydropower and wind power, photovoltaic can be deployed anywhere in the world, and the cost per kilowatt hour is lower than that of thermal power, which has epoch-making significance.
According to the prediction of Bloomberg, the proportion of solar energy in global energy will leap in the next 30 years (it is estimated that photovoltaic and wind power will account for 48% of the total power generation in 2050 and will exceed the global total power generation in 2018), attracting more than 4.2 trillion US dollars of investment.
The cost of photovoltaic power generation is mainly investment depreciation, with low maintenance and operation costs after completion. The cost of photovoltaic per kilowatt hour is close to that of thermal power. The decisive factor is that the price of panels, modules and supporting systems has dropped by 90%.
The rapid development of photovoltaic industry needs amorphous devices.
At present, the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic inverter reaches 97% ~ 99%. The maximum efficiency of MPPT controller (MPPT solar controller) is 98% ~ 99.9%. The maximum power per unit is about 2.5 MW. At present, the topology structure of the circuit is mainly Level 2, and a few are level 3. The cooling mode is mainly air cooling, and a small amount is self cooling and liquid cooling. The main power devices are IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) and MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor). The current voltage level is within 1000 volts.
However, with the development of power electronic technology, the switching frequency will gradually increase, and the traditional 2-level will be replaced by 3-level, which requires the use of amorphous core. The advantages of amorphous core in high-power photovoltaic inverter are fully reflected.
Due to their special structure and excellent comprehensive soft magnetic properties, amorphous and nano crystalline materials are particularly suitable for manufacturing various types of medium and high frequency transformers, high-performance inductors and filters, electromagnetic measurement and high-precision sensors, high-performance electromagnetic shielding and absorbing materials, etc. Magnetic devices are needed in electric drive system, electric control system, charging system and charging pile of electric vehicles.Tesla Model 3 bicycles use about 9200 amorphous inductors, while model s and model x bikes use more than 10000 amorphous inductors.
At present, amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys are the most ideal soft magnetic materials.